Build NeurEco Regression model with the Python API
Contents
Build NeurEco Regression model with the Python API#
To build a NeurEco Regression model in Python API, import NeurEcoTabular library:
from NeurEco import NeurEcoTabular as Tabular
Initialize a NeurEco object to handle the Regression problem:
model = Tabular.Regressor()
Call method build with the parameters set for the problem under consideration:
model.build(input_data, output_data,
validation_input_data=None, validation_output_data=None,
write_model_to="",
valid_percentage=33.33,
use_gpu=False,
inputs_scaling=None,
inputs_shifting=None,
outputs_scaling=None,
outputs_shifting=None,
inputs_normalize_per_feature=None,
outputs_normalize_per_feature=None,
initial_beta_reg=0.1,
gpu_id=0,
links_maximum_number=0,
checkpoint_to_start_build_from="",
start_build_from_model_number=1,
freeze_structure=False,
checkpoint_address="",
validation_indices=None,
disconnect_inputs_if_possible=True,
final_learning=True)
 input_data
numpy array, required. Numpy array of training input data. The shape is \((m,\ n)\) where \(m\) is the number of training samples, and \(n\) is the number of input features.
 output_data
numpy array , required. Numpy array of training output data. The shape is \((m,\ n)\) where \(m\) is the number of training samples, and \(n\) is the number of output features.
 validation_input_data
numpy array, optional, default = None. Numpy array of validation input data. The shape is \((m,\ n)\) where \(m\) is the number of validation samples, and \(n\) is the number of input features.
 validation_output_data
numpy array , optional, default = None. Numpy array of validation output data. The shape is \((m,\ n)\) where \(m\) is the number of validation samples, and \(n\) is the number of output features.
 write_model_to
string, optional, default = None. Path where the model will be saved.
 links_maximum_number
int, optional, default = 0, specifies the maximum number of links (trainable parameters) that NeurEco can create. If set to zero, NeurEco will ignore this parameter. Note that this number will be respected in the limits of what NeurEco finds possible.
 validation_indices
numpy array or list, optional, default = None. List of indices of the samples to be used as validation samples, in the training data. If the value is not None, the field valid_percentage will not be used. The lowest accepted index is 1, while the highest is the number of samples
 valid_percentage
float, optional, default is 33.33%. Percentage of the data that NeurEco will select to use as validation data. The minimum value is 10%, the maximum value is 50%. Ignored when validation_indices or validation_input_data and validation_output_data are provided.
 use_gpu
boolean, optional, default is False. True if GPU will be used for the build.
 gpu_id
int, optional, default is 0. id of the GPU card to use when use_gpu=True and multiple cards are available.
 inputs_shifting
string, optional, default = ‘auto’. Possible values: ‘mean’, ‘min_centered’, ‘auto’, ‘none’. See Data normalization for Tabular Regression for more details.
 inputs_scaling
string, optional, default = ‘auto’. Possible values: ‘max’,’max_centered’, ‘std’, ‘auto’, ‘none’. See Data normalization for Tabular Regression for more details.
 outputs_shifting
string, optional, default = ‘auto’ for Regression. Possible values: ‘mean’, ‘min_centered’, ‘auto’, ‘none’. See Data normalization for Tabular Regression for more details.
 outputs_scaling
string, optional, default = ‘auto’ for Regression. Possible values:’max’,’max_centered’, ‘std’, ‘auto’, ‘none’. See Data normalization for Tabular Regression for more details.
 inputs_normalize_per_feature
bool, optional, default = True. See Data normalization for Tabular Regression for more details.
 outputs_normalize_per_feature
bool, optional, default is False. See Data normalization for Tabular Regression for more details.
 initial_beta_reg
float, optional, default = 0.1. The initial value of the regularization parameter.
 checkpoint_to_start_build_from
default = “”, path to the checkpoint file. When set, the build starts from the already existing model (for example, while using the same data, when the previous build has stopped for some reason; or by using additional/different data or settings)
 start_build_from_model_number
int, default = 1, When resuming a build, specifies which intermediate model in the checkpoint will be used as starting point. when set to 1, NeurEco will choose the last model created as starting point. The model numbers should be in the interval [0, n[ where n is the total number of networks in the checkpoint.
 freeze_structure
bool, default = False, When resuming a build, NeurEco will only change the weights (not the network architecture) if this variable is set to True.
 checkpoint_address
string, optional, default = “”. The path where the checkpoint model will be saved. The checkpoint model is used for resuming the build of a model, or for choosing an intermediate network with less topological optimization steps.
 disconnect_inputs_if_possible
boolean, optional, default = True. NeurEco will always try to keep its model as small as possible without losing performance wise, so if it finds inputs that do not contribute to the overall performance, it will try to remove all links to them. Setting this parameter to False prevents NeurEco from disconnecting inputs.
 final_learning
boolean, optional, default = True. If set to True, NeurEco includes the validation data into the training data at the very end of the learning process and attempts to improvement the results.
 return
set_status: 0 if ok, other if not
Data normalization for Tabular Regression#
NeurEco can build an extremely effective model just using the data provided by the user, without changing any of the building parameters. However, the right normalization, based on the knowledge of the data’s nature, makes a big difference in the final model performance.
Output normalization is particularly sensitive as it can change the cost function.
Set outputs_normalize_per_feature to True if trying to fit targets of different natures (temperature and pressure for example) and want to give them equivalent importance.
Set outputs_normalize_per_feature to False if trying to fit quantities of the same kind (a set of temperatures for example) or a field.
If neither of these options suits the problem, normalize the data your own way prior to feeding them to NeurEco (and deactivate output normalization by setting outputs_shifting and outputs_scaling to ‘none’).
A normalization operation for NeurEco is a combination of a \(shift\) and a \(scale\), so that:
Allowed shift methods for NeurEco and their corresponding shifted values are listed in the table below:
Name 
shift value 

none 
\[0\]

min 
\[min(x)\]

min_centered 
\[0.5 * (min(x) + max(x))\]

mean 
\[mean(x)\]

Allowed scale methods for NeurEco Tabular and their corresponding scaled values are listed in the table below:
Name 
scale value 

none 
\[1\]

max 
\[max(x)\]

max_centered 
\[0.5 * (max(x)  min(x))\]

std 
\[std(x)\]

Normalization with auto options:
shift is mean and scale is max if the value of mean is far from 0,
shift is none and scale is max if the calculated value of mean is close to 0
If the normalization is performed by feature, and the auto options are chosen, the normalization is performed by group of features. These groups are created based on the values of mean and std.
Particular cases of Build for a Tabular Regression#
Select a model from a checkpoint and improve it#
At each step of the training process, NeurEco records a model into the checkpoint. It is possible to explore the recorded models via the load_model_from_checkpoint function of the python API. Sometimes an intermediate model in the checkpoint can be more relevant for targeted usage than the final model with the optimal precision (for example if it gives a satisfactory precision while being smaller than the final model with the optimal precision and thus can be embedded on the targeted device).
It is possible to export the chosen model as it is from the checkpoint, see Export NeurEco Regression model with the Python API.
The model saved via Export does not benefit from the final learning, which is applied only at the very end of the training.
To apply only the final learning step to the chosen model in the checkpoint:
Prepare the build with exactly the same argument as for the build of the initial model
Change or set the following arguments:
checkpoint_to_start_build_from: path to the checkpoint file of the initial model
start_build_from_model_number: choose the model among saved in the checkpoint
freeze_structure: True
Launch the training
Limit the size of the NeurEco model during Build#
Set the parameter links_maximum_number of the build method.
When possible, NeurEco limits the number of links created in the neural network to this number.
See Select a model from a checkpoint for the illustration of this option in the Python API.